Study on salary equality and earnings transparency: women earn 22% less

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Today is Equal Pay Day, which is the day of action, which draws attention to the salary gap between the merit of men and women around the world. Just to complain about the difference in salary, but is too short.

Study on salary equality and earnings transparency: women earn 22% less gender pay-gap

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Here writes for you: Simone Janson is a publisher, German Top20 blogger and HR communication consultant. Profile

The naked facts


First, one has to look at the pure facts, the naked facts so to speak: According to the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the difference in salary between women and men has decreased somewhat, but still remains at a high level.

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2013 received full-time women in management positions of the private sector with 22 per cent roughly one-fifth less gross than men with such activities. In the year 2012, the gender pay gap, the so-called gender pay gap, was at 24 percent, in 2002 at 26 percent.

Where does the data come from?


The Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) is a representative repetitive survey that has been running since 30 years. On behalf of DIW Berlin, about 25.000 interviewees are interviewed in nearly 15.000 households by TNS Infratest Sozialforschung.

The group of persons studied included persons between 18 and 64 years who stated that they were employees in the private sector in functions with comprehensive management functions (for example, directors, managing directors of larger companies and associations), other management functions or highly qualified activities (For example, department heads, department heads, scientific staff, engineers.

The arguments


At ZEIT ONLINE tell readers today how they experience the gender pay gap - and report on even more blatant salary differences. The ZEIT Do a slightly different calculation: Now the statistics of the statistics office refer to the gross salary wages of all full-time men and women. The 22 percent represents the unpaid wage gap. The figure does not take into account that men and women choose different professions in which the wage level is different. It also does not take into account the fact that women are missing in well-paid management positions. And she also does not consider longer periods of time. That's how it comes ZEIT on an adjusted pay gap from 7 to 8 percent.

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The counter-arguments


This is contradicted by the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin. According to the figures, the difference in earnings between all full-time men and women in total gross wages according to the statistics of the Federal Statistical Office in 2013 was 17 per cent.

While men in management positions (including skilled workers in highly-qualified jobs) earned an average of 2013 euros in the year 5.100, women were on average 4.000 Euro.

Part-time and female-typical occupations are not to blame


This difference of more than one-fifth can hardly be explained by shorter working hours of women: full-time women in management positions worked with an average of 45,4 hours only about one and a half hours or three percent less than full-time men.

The type of gender of the professions practiced, ie the question of whether it is more about women's, mixed or men's professions, is not the cause of the gender pay gap for executives. Rather, work experience plays a key role in executive income.

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More transparency please!


After all, it is mainly women who interrupt their careers to do family and household work, and are far more often than men or are employed part-time. This goes hand in hand with the attribution of lesser competence and performance expectations and often results in so-called statistical discrimination of women in the labor market and in the occupation of top positions, says eg Elke Holst, DIW Research Director for Gender Studies. And she is in favor of more transparency: "Often the usual earnings, bonuses or other bonuses are not known, especially for high positions, so affected women barely know that they remain below their potential in terms of earnings."

Conditions like in Norway?


Incidentally, the job and career community Glassdor, which advocates the initiative of Federal Minister of Women Manuela Schwesig for more salary transparency, also hits the same horn Company expressly welcomed. Glassdoor already offers employees the ability to learn about salaries and share them anonymously. Product Manager Sonja Perry explains: "For many German employees, salary transparency is an important issue: A recent Glassdoor study among German workers has shown: 6 10 respondents find that companies should be obliged to more transparency in terms of salaries. More than half of the advocates believe this could help close the salary gap between men and women. Every second thinks that greater transparency would strengthen trust between employers and employees. " So do we soon have conditions like in Norway, where everyone knows what the other deserves? And is that desirable?

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  6. Markus

    It would also be interesting to explain once, if there is an unequal pay for the same job. This is different from the somewhat populist title that promises 22% scissors.

    Unfortunately, women are almost not represented in technical engineering professions. This begins with the student's choice, when one goes to a course of lectures in electrical engineering or the machinists. Women are above average in social professions. But now it is the case that technically professions pay much more.

    And when women once go to an industrial group, then they are again in the hands of business professionals behind the desk. Whether with or without studies, the one is then accounting manager, who is without a college assistant. And if it can then create a time in the board, then consequently usually as a personnel board. The CEOs have, however, to a large extent a very technical background and business studies then later times made.

    Thus, I question that we have unequal treatment, which suggests the term "equal day payment" (and why an English term here). But it may be because of the fact that girls have to dare more to tackle technical education and study engineering and mechanical engineering!

    Or, in the end, the question arises of whether one wants a forced regulation of wages, ie that a job in the social sector is paid for the same as a job in the technical field.

    • Simone Janson

      Hi Mark,
      thank you for your comment. At first, more polemic headings simply reach more attention and ultimately lead to such comments.
      Exactly what you are criticizing here is also discussed in the article above:

      "It is not the gender pay gap in executives that is responsible for the gender type of the professions that are practiced, ie the question of whether they are more likely to be women, mixed or men's."

      There is also the opposite theory: women do not choose the wrong professions, but occupations which are mainly occupied by women are paid less or there is a feminization of entire professional groups, which is accompanied by their social devaluation and bad pay.

      On the contrary, typical low-paid female occupations such as nurses or kindergarten teachers are extremely important socially - it can not seriously be the argument that women should look for other jobs, but on the other hand, these jobs should be better paid.

      • Jennifer

        With this view you are absolutely right! If everyone were to study engineering sciences, almost all would be unemployed, while at the same time important activities like the care of no one would be exercised. Women-typical jobs are paid too badly.

        which I myself have already experienced discrimination. A cheap excuse, why you get no training is then quickly times, because you only part-time works. With us here was once a badly paid job out and at the same time were a few men over, which should be used elsewhere. On my suggestion that one of them could make the preliminary business, it was said that this was not a man reasonable .... so well-paid employment agencies tend to go to men and such places (women's image 60er years), of course, as always to women and then are often paid badly.

        I only work part-time in the profession because there are no interesting places for me. A minijob as a secondary activity is more interesting than my main profession. I used the time and enrolled myself at a university. Part-time is synonymous useful to use, no one considers it necessary to offer an interesting places, since you as unstudied yes is considered too stupid.

        The labor volume in DE is, by the way, on the level of 1991, although at the same time the potential for employment has increased by approx. 3 million, if I remember correctly. Unfortunately there is under-employment in many jobs, so not all can work fully, in my place would not be enough to do full-time. There you have to think about something else, which one with the Überangebot at AN begins.

        • Simone Janson

          Hello, thanks for the many comments. Krasse history with the pre-activity, which once again shows how deeply some prejudices still sit. Against such a thing could be accused by the way AGG. On the topic with the uninteresting places I thought spontaneously, make myself, I will go to your other comments. And yes, that more and more jobs will be dropped in the future, is discussed with the Unconditional Basic Income vigorously.

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