The naked facts
First, one has to look at the pure facts, the naked facts so to speak: According to the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the difference in salary between women and men has decreased somewhat, but still remains at a high level.
2013 received full-time women in management positions of the private sector with 22 per cent roughly one-fifth less gross than men with such activities. In the year 2012, the gender pay gap, the so-called gender pay gap, was at 24 percent, in 2002 at 26 percent.
Where does the data come from?
The Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) is a representative repetitive survey that has been running since 30 years. On behalf of DIW Berlin, about 25.000 interviewees are interviewed in nearly 15.000 households by TNS Infratest Sozialforschung.
The group of persons surveyed included persons between 18 and 64 years who, as employees in the private sector, were engaged in functions with comprehensive management tasks (for example, directors / directors, directors or directors of larger companies and associations), other management functions or highly qualified activities (eg department heads, scientific staff, engineers / engineers).
At ZEIT ONLINE tell readers today how they experience the gender pay gap - and report on even more blatant salary differences. The ZEIT Do a slightly different calculation: Now the statistics of the statistics office refer to the gross salary wages of all full-time men and women. The 22 percent represents the unpaid wage gap. The figure does not take into account that men and women choose different professions in which the wage level is different. It also does not take into account the fact that women are missing in well-paid management positions. And she also does not consider longer periods of time. That's how it comes ZEIT on an adjusted pay gap from 7 to 8 percent.
This is contradicted by the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin. According to the figures, the difference in earnings between all full-time men and women in total gross wages according to the statistics of the Federal Statistical Office in 2013 was 17 per cent.
While men in management positions (including skilled workers in highly-qualified jobs) earned an average of 2013 euros in the year 5.100, women were on average 4.000 Euro.
Part-time and female-typical occupations are not to blame
This difference of more than one-fifth can hardly be explained by shorter working hours of women: full-time women in management positions worked with an average of 45,4 hours only about one and a half hours or three percent less than full-time men.
Also, the gender type of the employed profession, ie the question of whether it is more a matter of women, mixed or men's professions, is not the cause for the gender pay gap in management. Rather, the professional experience plays a central role for the income of executives.
More transparency please!
After all, it is mainly women who interrupt their careers to do family and household work, and are far more often than men or are employed part-time. This goes hand in hand with the attribution of lesser competence and performance expectations and often results in so-called statistical discrimination of women in the labor market and in the occupation of top positions, says eg Elke Holst, DIW Research Director for Gender Studies. And she is in favor of more transparency: "Often the usual earnings, bonuses or other bonuses are not known, especially for high positions, so affected women barely know that they remain below their potential in terms of earnings."
Conditions like in Norway?
Incidentally, the job and career community Glassdor, which advocates the initiative of Federal Minister of Women Manuela Schwesig for more salary transparency, also hits the same horn Company expressly welcomed. Glassdoor already offers employees the ability to learn about salaries and share them anonymously. Product Manager Sonja Perry explains: "For many German employees, salary transparency is an important issue: A recent Glassdoor study among German workers has shown: 6 10 respondents find that companies should be obliged to more transparency in terms of salaries. More than half of the advocates believe this could help close the salary gap between men and women. Every second thinks that greater transparency would strengthen trust between employers and employees. " So do we soon have conditions like in Norway, where everyone knows what the other deserves? And is that desirable?
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