This is how you turn uncertainties and knowledge gaps into strengths
If you are a perfectionist and want to do everything well, you put yourself under unnecessary pressure and there is a high risk that something will go wrong. You are human and not perfect. On the contrary:
Small mistakes make people sympathetic, perfection seems fast unapproachable. Better: reduce your fears - even if the presentation is not one hundred percent, that's probably not the end of your career. Prepare yourself well, but be aware that you just can not answer all the questions. And do some relaxation exercises.
Do not be scared
The goal of a successful presentation is to convey your own content and positions and in such a way that the listeners accept them. Ms. M. commits a common mistake: she tries to guess what the audience wants to know and to prepare for all questions and objections so that she stands in good light.
Unfortunately she will not be able to do that because she is not a clairvoyant. Your attitude has nothing to do with an optimal preparation, much more speaks of fear of criticism. But that puts her in a defensive position right from the start - not a good prerequisite for a confident demeanor.
What do you want to say?
Always peel the core out! When preparing a presentation, first make it clear what content you want to convey - for example: "Our company is the best."
Think about what is the core message of your presentation and make it the guiding principle that keeps coming back in the course of the presentation. Then clarify why you are actually holding the presentation. Make yourself a list of your motives - depending on what you want to achieve, align your presentation form later. You want to:
Sovereign occur thanks to expertise
The facts for what you think are important to be said, you should really have ready. Then, when the presentation itself turns out to be something that your audience has been expecting from you, you can handle criticism much more confidently:
After all, you have prepared optimally and implemented exactly what you imagined in the topic.
What kind of occasion does your presentation have?
Make sure in advance what sense and purpose your presentation pursues.
- do you want to support others
- or convince?
- inform others - then your presentation should focus factually and neutrally on facts
- to draw attention to yourself and your ideas - then your presentation should be convincing
- To promote support - then your presentation should be emotional
- motivating or supporting others - then your presentation requires psychological empathy
- Entertain your audience - then your presentation should be easy and funny
Checklist: Clothes make people
Your outfit is one of the first things that people perceive in you - not the doctoral degree, expertise, or communication skills. Thirty seconds are enough. And there is no second chance for this first impression.
- Choose your wardrobe with the utmost care - listeners will notice stains, tears and wrinkles one hundred percent. Pay special attention to places that you think you can not really see - such as your shoes and socks.
- Stick to the motto: "Tell me what you wear and I'll tell you who you are". Be sure to choose your style according to the occasion, but in such a way that the clothing also underlines your personality. Because in this drawer is the audience.
- Pay attention to the occasion according to color: Dark, saturated colors signal rather authority / seriousness, bright colors have a dominant effect. But especially with tall people, they are sometimes too dominant and intimidating.
- Create a contrast between light and dark colors. The higher the contrast, the more competent you will be.
- Pay attention to quality: High-quality fabrics always look nobler, more successful and more competent than cheap ones. And who looks like that, you also trust something accordingly.
- Avoid anything that might distract you: Clinking Bangles, Excessive Jewelery, Silver and Gold Mixed Jewelry, Fat Watches, Rustling Fabrics, Flashy Patterns, Exuberant Outfits, Patterned Stockings, Flashy Shoes, Strong Perfumes. If special accessories are part of your personality, use them sparingly as a personal touch.
- Underline your face, which is in the foreground of the presentation, with a chic hairstyle, a beautiful, not too flashy glasses and - in women - discreet make-up.
- In general, bewitch your audience with facts, not with a flashy but inappropriate outfit.
Even if things are different ...
Of course, your audience can be very different than expected, for example, you have counted with professionals and find lay people. Maybe it's also an open lecture and the group is completely mixed. Or people are just different than you thought - unfortunately you can not plan something like that. However, you can avoid some pitfalls by informing and thinking about the audience in advance. For example, do not host an entertainment show if you have announced a serious lecture. Your listeners are not undefinable masses.
And of course you must not forget your audience during the preparation. Because you do not keep your presentation in front of a wall, but want to evoke an echo. And to make sure that this is as positive as possible, you should first find out who your audience is, because it makes a difference whether you speak in front of an expert audience or lay people, before boys or old people.
Checklist: Stay always confident in presentations
You can do that if you include the audience from the outset. Please consider:
- Which listeners do I have to deal with? Is the composition heterogeneous or homogeneous?
- What interest do the listeners have in the lecture?
- What expertise do the listeners have?
- Which language will you most understand?
- At which level do I meet the audience (eg human-sympathetic or objective)?
- What reactions do I expect or expect from the audience?
Many people are afraid to speak in front of an audience, because then you feel out of the crowd and have to face their criticism. They see the audience more as a black mass of relentless critics than as people they want to convey.
Such fears usually come from negative experiences, and over time they condense into beliefs like "I just can not speak freely" or "I'm just a boring speaker".
Do not be scared!
Ms. M., for example, has often heard the criticism that as a public relations specialist, she has a little bit of everything, but she does not know anything.
Therefore, she thinks: "At the congress are sure to be a lot of professionals who have much more idea of the individual special topics than myself". She forgets, however, that these experts certainly have more idea of their topic, but they lack the overview.
Make them positive beliefs
Such negative beliefs can make sure that what you fear as a self-fulfilling prophecy actually materializes.
But you can actively do something about it - by making your presentation a success and replacing the negative ones with positive experiences. And by analyzing and working with your strengths and weaknesses.
This is how you deal with fears and stage fright
Do not try to get used to stage fright, because it is important. In stage fright, your body spills out the stress hormone adrenaline, which spurs you to peak performance. If you stand in front of your audience and you do not care, it will not be a good and rousing lecture. And your audience will certainly be less aware of your nervousness than you think. Nevertheless, with a few measures you can reduce the tension slightly:
- Before you start, look for a quiet space where you can meditate for a few minutes or at least relax. Use also breathing and vocal exercises.
- If you are shaking: Stand up straight and press your palms together in front of your chest as if you wanted to swim. With this you dissipate the internal tremor, influence the adrenaline release and strengthen the speech muscles in the chest and neck.
- With autosuggestion, you can replace your negative beliefs with positive ones: "I'm well prepared," "I'll be fine," "I'm looking forward to hearing from you". Repeat these forms for a few minutes until you believe it yourself.
- Alcohol, valerian or other tranquillizers can help, but also be cumbersome, because at the same time you also lose your ability to react. Plus, you never know for sure how medications work on you. And there is a danger of addiction.
- Do not look at the audience as threatening, black masses, but as people who want to reach you. Make eye contact with those who seem well-disposed to you: for these people, you are holding your presentation.
- Basically: Find a quiet place to relax in advance and try to get down.
Checklist: The best preparation
But not only the circumstances are important, you should also be optimally prepared.
- Start the preparation in good time so that you do not run out of time.
- Read the tips above to prepare for a meeting, to research information and to build up the reasoning above, and also to heed this for the preparation of your presentation.
- If you are well versed in the topic, write meaningful keywords on index cards - these will ensure that you do not forget anything. Or make a note of the most important headlines on a headline sheet to keep track.
- If you are unfamiliar with the topic: Write the full text of the presentation. Then read it so often that looking at the beginning of the sentence is enough to keep the subject in mind. Avoid reading from the script.
- Pay attention to emphasis and pauses in the right places: So you can achieve good effects. Read voice exercises.
- Arrange your documents, then is also order in your head. Do not just quote quotations, but write them verbatim in your redeman's script or on the cards - so you avoid hectic swearing on the table.
- Practice your speech four times. Record yourself in sound (for example, on a computer or with a cassette recorder) or picture (with a digital or video camera) yourself. Let constructive feedback from well-meaning but critical friends.
- Memorize the first four minutes of your presentation: then you will have time to calm down during the lecture.
- Which media do you want to use? Beamer, Overhead, Video, Flipchart? Plan the use of media directly when writing. Then familiarize yourself with the presentation technology on site.
- Come on time, well rested, physically and mentally fit for the lecture. If you are ill, cancel the presentation better if possible. If that does not work, point out your poor condition at the beginning.
- A glass of wine is better not to prepare. Make sure you are sufficiently familiar with the presentation media.
How to skilfully deal with your own weaknesses
Do not make yourself a target. You can not eliminate all weaknesses even with optimal preparation. And unfortunately your listeners do not always react the way you want them to. Some listeners are looking for mistakes.
There is only one thing to do: make yourself very well aware of your strengths and weaknesses so that you can handle them confidently.
Analyze your strengths and weaknesses
Create a table for your strengths and weaknesses as shown below. But do not just list these in writing:
Also keep track of how you use results-oriented properties and how you want to use them. Important: Do not simply criticize your weaknesses, but formulate them positively and constructively consider what you still benefit from:
|Professional experience in the PR field||Well-founded Reche, good style at the lecture||To convey to the listener my expertise as a PR specialist|
|creativity||I can structure my ideas even better.||Surprise the listener with new ideas|
|communication skills||I can respond even more to the audience||Involve the audience, respond to them|
|Vision capability||I can better structure my ideas.||I can convince listeners with my ideas|
|weaknesses||Decrease by:||Still useful because:|
|Something about everything, but no special knowledge||Contacts to specialists||Communicate knowledge in such a way that everyone understands it, submitting information later on special questions|
|I am nervous quickly, then speak too fast||I do relaxation exercises and pay attention to good breathing||Precisely because I speak fast, I can also get some people excited|
|I am often offended by criticism||I practice sovereignty and repartee.||I specifically seek eye contact with nice listeners.|
|I am a bit chaotic on occasion||If I organize and structure better, I can do everything better||I am flexible and can decide spontaneously in difficult situations|
Once you have made it clear how to handle your weaknesses positively, you can confidently handle them in the presentation as well.
Start the escape to the front
Handle criticism confidently. Mrs M. is late for presentation. Actually unpardonable, but she smiles charmingly in the round: "You know, the traffic, and unfortunately I drove off too late ..." A clever immunization tactic: She admits the misconduct honestly and does not speak out.
So criticism becomes ineffective
If you admit your deficits on your own, take the wind out of the sails of a potential critic, because you make him a bore: he would just repeat what you said yourself. The immunization works especially with offenses of so-called secondary virtues such as punctuality or order.
If you fear an objection, you can anticipate it and thereby refute it: "A question that is often asked here ...", "You certainly did not notice that ...", "You will certainly ask yourself the question ..." or "You probably ask right away ..." This shows that you have thought through the whole topic.
- Prepare yourself as well as you can, what You: want to say.
- Be aware of your weaknesses as well as your strengths, so that you know what you can build on and what you still need to work on.
- Always check how the audience reacts to the lecture.
- Speak for everyone understandable, practical and in pictures, so that everyone gets along well, what it is about.
- Stand your legs apart in hip width so that you have a firm, self-confident stance on critique.
- Not only do you get the tips from the rhetoric course and counselors, but also develop your own presentation style.
- Do not talk to your audience - even if it hails criticism. Otherwise you lose your credibility.
- Do not overshadow the audience with facts and terms they do not understand.
- Do not look down on the audience and do not constantly try to prove your competence: it seems arrogant and unsympathetic.
- Do not prance around and do not play around with me - that is unsonisfactory.
Caught - and now?
Ms. M. has tried to bring order and structure to the presentation, but she is being criticized for her chaotic material.
Counter criticism confidently
An embarrassing justification does not seem sovereign: "Unfortunately, I did not manage to sort the papers ...". Equally inappropriate is the flippant answer: "This is not your problem!" Better: quick wit with a dose of humor: "I need such a creative chaos".
Yes, exactly: Agree! It can also be harder: let the criticism go nowhere by highlighting your information character, thanking you and - agree: "Thanks for the hint. Somebody said that to me "," Of course I'm chaotic - what did you think? "," Well observed that it is chaotic on the table. Now you can also look under the table. "Or" You'll have to get used to that. "
Show your self-confidence
This will make the review boring because you are self-confidently fully committed to your weakness. And if you do not care what others think, you can go one better. To a reproach like "That's not so ok ..." you answer: "But that's it."
However, before attempting such heavier artillery, try sovereignty and friendliness. Be open to weaknesses when approached and try not to find any excuses. That makes you sympathetic. Do not be embarrassed, but stand firm and sure: they have finally made it clear where your weaknesses are, but what you can do with them!
Cleverly transfer to another topic
The motto is: honest, but not embarrassed. Just divert to a topic that you are familiar with to get from dangerous black ice to safe ground. However, this requires rhetorical skill, so it does not seem like an excuse or an escape.
They should move quickly down from the black ice. Ms. M. is asked during the presentation for a technical detail topic that she has no idea about. She replies: "This detail is secondary to the overall understanding, but thanks for your objection: to make this clearer, let me explain the main function of the device again with an example" - and that brings you back to your well-prepared script ,
Reset the throw-in
You can also reset the objection: "This is an interesting statement. But I want to be aware of that later. "Or" Your question is absolutely legitimate. But we still have to ... ". Also good: point to the end of the presentation: "This requires a detailed answer, which I can give you better in a one-to-one interview." They gain time and with luck, the listener has already forgotten the throw.
But you may not only want to distract you, but also defend yourself at the same time, for example against the accusation that you have no idea: "I have always successfully compensated for my lack of knowledge with a flourishing imagination."
An exciting start is already the half success
The first impression counts. This also applies to presentations. Therefore, your entry should sit.
Checklist: With a top entry from the beginning to distract from weaknesses
The first few minutes are crucial: Now you can break the ice, build a good relationship with the listener, captivate him and at the same time face exaggerated expectations. As a result, you will listen more interested and overlook weaknesses:
- Surprise with the latest information: media reports, explosive industry news or a spontaneous event. Example: "I have collected all the important arguments of the previous speaker" - and you hold up a white sheet.
- If the frame is rather conservative, a quotation from a well-known authority makes itself well, for example: "Here I stand and can not do otherwise" (Martin Luther) or "The painter Salvador Dali once said: 'Who wants to interest, must provoke'. I would like to try out if that's true. "Do not exaggerate the citation, it will otherwise appear set.
- It can also captivate, provoke. Example: "Turning now to the bare facts ..." After the provocation, pause for three seconds. Then weaken the provocation and introduce the topic: ... the pure facts. "Attention: this can become apparent if you personally provoke your listeners.
- A relaxed atmosphere can be achieved with humor But: The joke must sit and surprise to work. Never announce: "Here is a humorous story" or "Something funny happened to me recently" Better: "I prefer to present the slides with my own laptop - at least that's what I want!"
- Also surprising: Start with a completely different topic. Or wake up your audience with a false statement: "As you know, we will have to pay 70% tax starting next year."
- Jump right into the middle of the topic of the lecture. This is especially appropriate if your competences are undisputed or you have something particularly interesting to tell. Examples: "Innovation? For sure! But how? "Or" Only three things are crucial: performance, profit, future "
- Equally effective: bait your listeners immediately with the benefits that this presentation will bring: "My first three suggestions will show you that ..." or "At the end of the presentation you will have at least ten good ideas .."
- Ask rhetorical questions that you answer in the course of the presentation - preferably three to five in a row. "Why do you think ours has Company achieved such high profits in the past? Can we rest on these laurels? What else could we improve? "
- Put on the beginning a very short, visible effect for all, such as a sketch, slides, a short film, a cartoon or your product.
Include your audience
Why rhetoric is needed: Not every listener listens patiently and interested in your comments and constructively supports the presentation with factual contributions. Unfortunately, there are always those who intervene, they want to poke questions, for fun to criticize the joy or to profile themselves. Make nevertheless a good figure, by the situation spontaneously correctly estimate and counter quick-witted.
Are your listeners
- shy as a deer ...
- spiky and nagging like a hedgehog ...
- or do you babble in between like parrots?
Checklist: dealing with difficult listeners
But how do you deal with difficult listeners? The following overview tells you.
- Restrained people must lure you with very specific questions from the reserve, such as: "And what is your opinion on this aspect?", Otherwise you do not feel addressed and criticize the presentation afterwards.
- The same tactic works even with disinterested listeners. Even if you silently ask yourself why they are there at all: do not let that show you that will only provoke you unnecessarily.
- Aggressive, irritated listeners are vocal, but not really dangerous, because they do not really provide factual arguments. Just ask them for a factual justification: "Why do you think so? Please explain your opinion in detail! "
- Even whiners who criticize everything, whether you are right or not, can bring you to objection with such a request for objectivity.
- Others constantly intervene and do not stop themselves: interrupt consistently by pointing out the short time or by turning back to the topic: "This is about ..." or "Interesting, but that leads a little too far. I really want to do something else "
- Also in the presentation there are "class clowns" who make even with serious topics irritating jokes. Integrate them with specific questions and let the audience take a stand - that relaxes: "Well, Mr. W. has made his opinion clear with a lot of humor. What do you make of it?".
- Dangerous are listeners who use cunning questions to attack their competencies and to challenge you for their role. "Is not this study scientifically outdated?" Do not be provoked, stay objective and answer the questions as close as possible: "There are different opinions ... Study X shows."
Find friends in the audience
When the audience is on your side, every presentation becomes a success. But you have to do something actively, because unfortunately you can not always put good friends in the audience who nod to you encouragingly and defend you against criticism. A good way: Build sympathy bridges:
- Greet the audience in person before the event, hold a short conversation.
- Praise your listeners - of course only honestly: "There is so much experience gathered here" or "Your skills are undeniable."
- Keep eye contact and pay attention to the reactions: Is someone signaling that he did not understand something? Show empathy: explain the aspect again flexible.
- Speak directly to what you think and feel - that creates emotional attachment. Use the ego form when you are emotional, but a "we" when you argue rationally. Example: "I am very happy that last year has gone so well. Next year we plan ... "
Include the audience during the talk
That too is a good tactic: involve other listeners.
- Give questions and objections to the audience. This feels involved and takes care of possible criticism right away.
- Lead the dialogue with the participants: "Mr. V., tell what happened to you."
- Make contact with the audience and relax the atmosphere by making them known to each other: "Have you asked your neighbors why you are here?" Or have the audience introduce each other.
Checklist: Make accomplices out of your listeners
Make accomplices out of your listeners. Only use the rhetorical devices, if need be, because the shot can backfire:
- In the case of unjustified criticism, do you address the audience: "Did you hear that?" Or just "Listen, Listen." That's very sharp rhetoric, because you put the other one in a completely absurd view and he will be very touched.
- Mild are the little words "about" or "not", which unobtrusively give the audience the expectation that it may agree: "Do you agree?" "Do not you think that ..?". And nod your head a few seconds to support the suggestive question. Caution: Some listeners feel pressured quickly.
- Suggestive as well: Let us vote on the subject of the presentation by formulating the question so that your topic definitely gets the majority: "Are not you also of that opinion? All! Then I would like to inform you now more about it. "
- Whatever works wonders: greet your listeners personally.
Skillfully answer all questions
In presentations, it is customary to ask the listener questions afterwards. There are different types of questions - and different ways of dealing with them.
Questions from the audience can improve your presentation; For example, if someone has not understood something that they now explain and make it more understandable for everyone.
Or if you are asked for additional information and complete the presentation with them. A question can also activate knowledge and experiences that you would not otherwise have thought of. Therefore, take each question first positive.
But there are also questions for which you do not know the answer. Rhetorical skills are needed here so that your presentation is not endangered. Questions that do not bode well can be recognized by the "why" at the beginning.
For the questioner shows his lack of understanding and in the worst case even makes a hidden accusation: "Why do you treat this aspect first?", "Why do you interpret the facts like this?" Do not let yourself be provoked or press for justification. Answer the question calmly - but confidently without "because": "I think this order makes more sense!"
Take this into account in factual questions such as "Can you give me the sales figures from the year before last?". Many people like to ask themselves the why question if they do not know the answer: "Oh dear, why do not I know that now?" And accordingly the answer is: "Sorry, I do not know that because ..".
Better: confidently confess that you do not know something, but without any justification, and offer to provide the information later. You can also ask the question for discussion. But this only works if the audience plays along and they do not do it too often.
Another technique: Ask a factual counter question that is personal, but not provoked, such as "How do you always prepare for such presentations?". Emphasize the word "you" especially.
It makes the questioner talk about himself (which many people like to do anyway) and he's distracted by you.
Offensively confront the objections and criticisms of your listeners
Some objections are really nasty. Then you can not continue with objectivity, but it will only help you with repartee.
The game with the eyes
Watch attacks on your opponent's right or left eye. Even more effective, but also more aggressive: squint!
Banish unwelcome objections
If you do not respond to utterances but do not want to be speechless: Explain the throw-in as trivial that you do not need to answer. At the same time you make ridiculous to the one-thrower. This can become a boomerang, because it only works if the audience is on your side.
Quite simple, but rather clumsy: Do not let the Einwerfende pronounce, say the same: "Papperlapapp" and carry on. Somewhat subtler: "Who knows where you heard that again?". By doing so you imply to the other that he has no opinion of his own.
Cut off the word
Flat out. Cut through the red thread right away. Or: Make a statement like "Statistical investigations contradict but your statements" a blank statement, such as:
"Do you always blindly believe in any statistics?" They indirectly suggest that the listener in question believes in statistics more than you, and that anyone who does so obviously believes in everything possible and is therefore naive. If the listener continues to rant on his throw-in, he risks a loss of image.
Irritate unpleasant remarks with a deliberate exaggeration. Example: "May I ask something?"
Her answer: "What do you have great things to say?". Increase an exaggeration if necessary to the point of absurdity; For example, in the charge of "why do not you know that detail?" your answer might be, "I can not always walk around with the entire manual under my arm."
Very aggressive is this method: They are improved and replied: "Yes, Mr. L. knows it again exactly" and already Mr. L. stands as a know-it-all.
I do not understand…
Or you simply refuse to understand the throw-in. All it takes is a simple "I do not understand" without justification and completely dry. Or a short note. Your listener, for example, says, "I've known this with 13 for years, and then I became an engineer."
They answer dryly: "With 13?" Behind this is the general custom: If one does not understand something, the other must explain that. The game you can continue with each new statement until the other runs out of air.
Manslaughter arguments - how to remain sovereign anyway
That's another boost. With manslaughter arguments, your audience wants to travel the scepter and you will not notice anything.
Ms. M. introduces the company's new products for the coming year. Suddenly an interjection: "So I do not think anyone buys something like that." And now? First, Ms. M. keeps the spit away. It would now be wrong to convince the critic with facts (eg market studies), because you can not do that anyway and you also lose the competence of everyone else because you justify yourself.
That's behind it!
Defuse maneuvering arguments by explaining the mechanism behind it: a social consensus, something that allegedly everyone is convinced of and implicitly always resonates with. For example, the new product is criticized: "Nobody will buy that, studies show with thousands of customers." Make it clear to your listeners, on what shaky legs of the consensus is: "And what about the other few million?"
Underpin your position
Better: let the critic think what he wants - but underpin your own position in front of everyone's eyes. Answer for example: "We remain friends, even if I disagree!"
Or show your self-confidence: "I can live with it!" Then break off the eye contact and just continue. Parry skillfully in verbal combats.
A bold version is a short demonstration: "Who in the room would not buy that? Hand up! "They count their hands and comment on" 2 from 50! "And carry on. Of course you risk that suddenly the majority will vote against you.
But usually the audience solidarises with the speaker and just undecided participants will hardly dare to oppose the majority opinion.
Repeat the charge
All this works especially well when the manslaughter argument with "I think ..."; "I think ...", "I believe ..." or "I do not like ..." is put forward. But even if the interjection is "This buys no one", "This will not work anyway," "You fall on your nose," you can use these answers:
Just repeat the accusation, but make a "believe it" or "find it" before it. Now you have made it clear that this is only a subjective opinion. Example: "You think we would end up with it? I can live with that!"
Checklist: To breathe the stress away you are always good at voice
Nervousness and stress immediately settle on the voice and thus reveal your weaknesses. It does not have to be this way: train your voice in a way that you can handle at any time. At the same time you learn to breathe calmly and relax. Do each exercise about three times. With the right vocal technique you do not need a megaphone even in large rooms.
- Inhale through the nose and say pf, sh, s, z or w. Breathe out and slowly guide your hand away from your mouth as if you were pulling gum out of your mouth.
- As you inhale, pull your shoulders up, exhale, and drop your shoulder.
- When breathing in, lift your arms up on the side with your palms facing up. Take a deep breath and lower your arms again.
- Do breaststroke movements: If you go forward with your arms, breathe in. When you open the arms and go to the side, you exhale with sch.
- Your arms are hanging next to the body as you breathe in, you are making a fist. While exhaling with pf swing your arms backwards and open your hands.
- The same starting position, only with one arm. Now the arm does not go backwards, but you make a throwing motion forward and speaking l, w, mo or mü.
- After breathing in with one hand, pull an imaginary bubble gum out of your mouth and, breathing out, speak one of those sounds again.
- Breathe in. When you exhale, say l, w, mo or mü lang - short-short - long - short - short. Then take a break.
- Practice the pitch: become higher and lower as you speak. Start with a higher pitch and then slide into a deeper one.
- Listen to the volume: Speak a sound from quiet to loud, as if you're turning a volume knob while keeping the pitch.
- Practice articulation by speaking with a cork between your teeth. Clear speech also slows you down automatically.
- Make sure there is always a glass of water ready.
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