The Holy Grail of criminal psychology
Again, it is beneficial that we learn the truth and not be lied to. The exciting thing is: The detection of lies is something like the Holy Grail of criminal psychology.
For the simple reason that there is no Pinocchio factor. Nobody grows a long nose because he is lying. In addition, there is no single feature in the behavior and the appearance of a person that is a really clear reference to a lie - unless in the above can be substantive contradictions.
There are no clear indications
Anyone who says that there are clear lying signals in humans either has no idea of the matter, is misinformed or lies himself. There is certainly sound evidence of a lie, but there is nothing definite.
When looking for signals for lies or truth, one thing is especially important: The setting - the situation and the environment in which the person is, who makes a statement, is crucial.
Why torture brings nothing
We all know the typical crime film examples that make us believe that building a certain amount of pressure on a person who interrogates helps and eventually triggers the truth out of it.
That this is not the case has not least been proven by the brutal interrogation methods in Guantanamo Bay, which elicited fewer truths than hoped for. Often building pressure even leads to an opposite effect.
Because what is at stake in the search for the truth is to get people to start talking by themselves - pressure build-up and a quick aggressive approach usually lead to less useful information.
Recognize lies on eye movement?
On television, in the media in general and in books, false theses and alleged knowledge about the possibilities of detecting lies are repeatedly spread. Many just do not vote.
So for many years the theory went around that lies can be identified by means of certain eye movements. This conviction has lasted for a long time, even at detective agencies and occasionally even at the police. Eye movements or line of sight do not allow statements to be made about the evaluation of truth and falsehood. However, other features that well allow conclusions to be drawn about truth or lies could, however, be identified.
Warning signals for possible lies
Some of these warning signals for possible lies are presented here. Roughly speaking, there are basically three areas that can be used to assess whether there is at least an indication that a person is telling the truth or not.
The first area contains verbal utterances, that is, what is really said. The second is the so-called micro-expressions, and the third is the gestures and body language of a person.
What are micro expressions?
What we call micro expressions today is based on that of American psychologyprofessor Paul Ekman and his colleague Wallace Friesen first published the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) in 1978.
At that time, Ekman had been dealing with emotions for a very long time. The question was whether emotions are something that we learn during our childhood, or whether emotions are innate.
Feelings through facial muscles recognize
With this question, he began to capture emotions in different cultures in different parts of the world. He developed a special system that showed emotions by means of facial muscle movements.
The theory behind it was: If these emotional expressions are the same in all regions of the world, it means a universal foundation and therefore that emotions are innate. As it turned out, there are actually basic emotions that are expressed everywhere in the world, which are part of our biological outfit. It is assumed that these emotions were also part of the early communication, as humans could not yet speak.
Warning signs on the face
For example, the expression of disgust is a warning signal for others. Similarly, the expression of anger makes it clear that the opposite is just in an upturned condition and is better kept apart. But the basic emotions are not always about warnings - even laughter is counted, which has a positive social function.
In the meantime, we know that a man's microexpressions are very difficult to influence or even suppress. They therefore represent a means to discover a discrepancy between a statement and the actual feeling. However, the only truly well-trained and well-trained people is the fact that the term "micro" stands for the fact that these emotions can not be read in one face for a second.
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German edition: ISBN 9783965961746
English version: ISBN 9783965961753 (Translation notice)
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