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Text comes from the book: “Negotiating without compromise. The strategies and methods of the negotiator of the FBI ”(2017), published by Münchener Verlagsgruppe (MVG) Münchener Verlagsgruppe (MVG), reprinted with the kind permission of the publisher.

Here writes for you:

Chris Voss is a consultant and ex-negotiator for the FBI. Chris Voss worked for the FBI as a hostage negotiator for 24 years and is one of the world's best negotiators. After his time at the FBI, he founded The Black Swan Group, a consulting firm that provides training and advice to Fortune 500 companies on complex negotiation situations.

Negotiating and Feeling: The Power of Emotions in Business

Scientific theories are constantly trying to explain the world rationally. Nothing works without emotions and the power of interpersonal psychology - even in business that seems so rational.

The psychology of negotiation

During my brief stint at the university, I realized that all
the raw analytical intelligence and mathematical logic in the
World without a profound understanding of the human psyche, without the acceptance that we are all crazy, irrational, impulsive, emotion-driven beings, in the emotionally charged interplay between two people negotiating with each other, none
Provide help.

Yes, maybe we are the only living thing that haggles - a monkey
does not exchange any part of his banana for another monkey's nuts -,
but no matter how we turn our negotiations into mathematical theories
dress, we always stay animals based first and foremost
act on our deep-seated, but outwardly invisible and diffuse fears, needs, perceptions and desires.

Where Harvard is wrong

But this does not correspond to the approach taken at Harvard Law
School is taught. Their theories and techniques had invariably with intellectual superiority, analytical logic, rational
Concepts of values, authoritative acronyms such as BATNA and ZOPA
and a solid moral Concept ABC School Joke Oud about doing justice and injustice.
And of course the process was enthroned above this false building of rationality. The students had to follow a script that
from a predetermined sequence of actions from offers and
Counter offers existed that were arranged in a specific way
were to produce a specific result. It was as if they were operating a robot: if you do steps a, b, c and d in a certain fixed order, you get x.

In reality, however, negotiations are far too complex and unpredictable for this type of procedure; may need
After step a you step d and then maybe step q
. make
If I had the most brilliant students in the country with just one
master the many emotion-based negotiation techniques
I developed and negotiated with terrorists
and had successfully used hostage takers, why should they
then not also be applicable to the business world? What is the difference between bank robbers taking hostages
and CEOs who use tough negotiating tactics to find the price of a billion-dollar acquisition
to press?

What hostage takers and business people have in common

Ultimately, hostage-takers are nothing more than business people trying to get the best price for their "goods".
Old school negotiations
There are hostage-taking and negotiations about their release
since time immemorial. The Old Testament contains numerous stories of Israelites and their enemies who took citizens hostage to one another as spoils of war. The Romans, in turn, forced the rulers of the subject vassal states to adopt theirs
Sending sons to Rome for training in order to secure the permanent loyalty of the defeated territories.

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Until the government of President Nixon, hostage negotiations consisted without exception of sending heavily armed men
Special forces trying to free the hostages. In the
Most of the time, our approach to policing was to work with the
Talk to hostage takers until we figured out how we were
who were able to free hostages by force of arms. Pure brute force.
But then a series of bloody hostage dramas forced us to
Rethink.

The FBI's wrong strategy

In 1971, 39 hostages were killed when police tried the
Riots in Attica prison in the north of the state
End New York at gunpoint. At the Olympics of
1972 in Munich eleven Israeli athletes and coaches were after
an unsuccessful rescue attempt by the German forces
killed by their Palestinian hostage takers.
The greatest impetus for institutional change in America
Law enforcement agencies found however on October 4, 1971 on the tarmac
Jacksonville, Florida Airport.

The United States was experiencing an epidemic at that time
Aircraft hijackings; in 1970 it came within three days
to five kidnappings. It was in this heated atmosphere that happened
it that a troubled man named George Giffe Jr. hijacked a charter plane from Nashville, Tennessee and wanted to hijack it to the Bahamas.
By the end of the hijacking, Giffe had killed two hostages - his ex-wife and the pilot - and subsequently committed suicide.
This time it wasn't the hostage-taker's fault, it was the FBI's sole responsibility. Two hostages had succeeded, Giffe too
to persuade them to be released in Jacksonville, where the plane was going to
Refueling had landed. The FBI agents had, however
lost patience and shot up the turbines. That had Giffe
made so angry that he murdered the hostages.
The FBI was to blame for this outcome was so great that
the court in which the pilot's widow and Giffe's daughter brought charges against the FBI of wrongful death,
agreed with the plaintiffs.

How should negotiation processes run?

In the landmark judgment of Downs v. The United States
In 1975 the US Court of Appeals wrote that there was "a better alternative to protecting the" welfare "of the hostages," and said,
the FBI had "what was a successful" perseverance "tactic in
the course of which two people could safely leave the aircraft,
turned into a 'shooting tournament' that claimed three lives «.
The court concluded by stating that "a reasonable attempt at negotiation must be made before tactical intervention."

The Downs hostage situation became the epitome of all things one could do
Not allowed to do anything in a crisis situation, and inspired the development of today's theories, training and techniques in negotiating hostage-taking.
Shortly after the Giffe tragedy, the New York Police Department became active
(NYPD) became the first United States Police Department to have a
put together a special team of specialists to develop a negotiation process for crises and to take over the negotiation. The FBI and other agencies followed.
A new era of negotiations had begun.

4 steps to perfect negotiation

In the early 1980s, Massachusetts was the hotspot on the
Area of ​​negotiation science, where scholars from different disciplines came together and explored exciting new concepts. Harvard Negotiation, founded in 1979
Project that aimed to optimize the theory, teaching and practice of negotiation in order to increase the chances of success in all
Increasing possible negotiation situations - from peace negotiations to corporate mergers - marked one
real milestone.
Two years later, Roger Fisher and William Ury published,
the co-founders of this project, the book Getting to Yes2
, a
groundbreaking treatise on negotiating tactics that support the
The methodology of negotiators from practice is fundamental
changed.

Fisher and Ury's approach was essentially to systematize problem-solving so that the negotiating parties could reach a mutually satisfactory agreement - how
the book title already says. Their basic assumption was that
overcome the emotional brain - the animalistic, unreliable and irrational beast - with a more rational, problem-solving mindset.
Their system, which consisted of four basic tenets, was attractive and easy to follow.

  1. Separate the person - the feeling - from the problem.
  2. Do not get caught up in the external position of the other side (which it requires),
    Instead, focus on the underlying motivations (why she is making a particular demand) so you can figure out what she really wants.
  3. Be cooperative to find mutually beneficial options.
  4. Establish mutually accepted standards for evaluating possible solutions.

Does game theory help with negotiations?

It was a brilliant, rational and profound synthesis of the most modern game theory and legal thinking of the time.
After this book was published, everyone, including the FBI and NYPD, has focused on a problem-solving approach to any type of negotiation. It just seemed so modern and such
smart.
In another corner of the United States, two were chasing Professoren of the
University of Chicago takes a completely different approach they take on everyone
conceivable areas - from economics to negotiation science. That was the economist Amos Tversky and the psychologist

Daniel Kahneman. Together they established the field of behavioral economics - for which Kahnemann was awarded the Nobel Prize - by showing that humans are extremely irrational beings.
Feeling, they found, is a form of thinking.
When business schools like Harvard began teaching negotiation strategies in the 1980s, they conveyed the process as straight-line economic analysis. That was a time when the
most respected economists believed that
People are "rational actors". And so it was taught in theCourses on negotiation strategy. It was assumed that the other side was trying to change its own position
strengthen, basically rational and selfish. The negotiating partner must therefore find out how best to react to different scenarios in order to increase the value of his own
Maximize position in a rational way.

Heart versus mind

This view baffled Kahneman, from his years
Experience in the field of psychology knew »that people
are never perfectly rational nor completely selfish and theirs
Preferences are anything but stable «as he is in his own
Words expressed.
In decades of research that he carried out with Tversky, Kahneman proved that all human beings have a cognitive
Suffer from distortion. These are unconscious and irrational processes in the
Brains that distort our perception of the world. Kahneman
and Tversky discovered more than 150 such processes.
There is the so-called framing effect - also a frame of interpretation
called -, therefore different formulations a and
the same content-related message as that of the
Is interpreted by recipients. (Studies have shown that an increase from 90 to 100 percent - from the high
Probability to certainty - is perceived as more valuable
than an increase from 45 to 55 percent, although it is in both
Cases are objectively the same rate of increase, namely by 10 percent.) The prospect theory or new expectation theory
explains why we are ready in the face of possible risk of loss
are to take disproportionately high risks. The best known is the loss aversion or loss aversion, which describes the tendency to value possible risks higher than possible profits of equal magnitude.

The 2 thought systems of humans

Kahneman later codified his research in his 2011 bestseller Thinking Fast, Thinking Slowly. In essence, he puts forward the thesis that man
has two systems of thought:

  1. System; Our animal brain is fast, instinctive and emotional.
  2. System: our rational brain, slow, conscious and logical.

System 1 is far more powerful and influential than System 2; in fact, it guides and controls all of our rational thinking. The immature beliefs, feelings and impressions of the
first system are the main source of the explicit beliefs and conscious decisions of the second system. It is the
Source that feeds the river. We react emotionally (system 1) to
a suggestion or a question. Then the response of the first system affects the response generated by the second system.

Heart vs. Mind: how to manipulate interlocutors

Consider the following: If you know how to use the formulation and delivery of this model
Your questions and statements the mindset and unspoken
Influence feelings of the first system of your interlocutor
can then you can use the rationality of his second system
control and thus change his reactions.

That was what happened at Harvard to a fellow student named Andy. By once asking him, "How am I supposed to do this?" I influenced his first system into admitting that his offer wasn't good enough. His second system then streamlined the situation so that it would
It made sense to make me a better offer.
According to Kahneman, negotiating on the base was the same
of the rational system 2 concept, excluding the instruments with which the emotional basis of the first system could be read, understood and manipulated, the attempt to make an omelette
frying without knowing how to break an egg.

Powerless against feelings: The FBI is getting emotional

It couldn't be overlooked that Getting to Yes in negotiations
didn't work with hostage takers. No matter how many agents that
Studying the book intensely with a highlighter in hand, we did not succeed in improving our method of negotiating hostage-taking. There was a definite break between
the brilliant theory of the book and daily experience in
police work. Why was it that everyone read this bestseller and
praised it as the best negotiating book ever written
was, and yet hardly anyone was successful with the strategies described in it?
Were we complete fools?

As the new FBI negotiating team grew
with hostage-taking in the 1980s and 1990s and his increasing wealth of experience in the field of crisis management, it became clear that our system was missing a central element.
At that time we were completely convinced of Getting to Yes. and
As a negotiator, consultant, and teacher with decades of experience, I still enjoy many of the highly effective negotiation strategies in this book. At the time of his
Publication provided it groundbreaking ideas to be more collaborative
Problem solving and formed the foundation for developing indispensable concepts such as starting negotiations with
an alternative concept - called BATNA ("Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement") - in the event that the desired outcome of the negotiations does not come about.
It was awesome.

But after the disastrous end of Randy's surveillance
Weaver's Ruby Ridge Farm in Idaho in 1992 and the siege of the headquarters of the David Koresh-led sect
Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas in 1993 couldn't be denied that most hostage negotiations are everything else
than were rational problem-solving situations.
What I'm saying is this: have you ever tried im
Dealing with a person who considers himself the Messiah to find a mutually satisfactory solution?
After Ruby Ridge and Waco, many people asked this question. U.S. Assistant Attorney General Philip B. Heymann
for example wanted to know why our negotiation techniques
failed so miserably when hostages were taken. And we had to admit: We were powerless against the power of emotions.

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