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Minijob pension insurance Health insurance Family insurance: Does the renunciation of insurance exemption?

"EUR 400 jobs" or so-called mini-jobs are also called "low-paid jobs". They are exempt from social security insurance, at least for the employee. That means: You don't get more than 400 euros a month for a mini job. If you get more, you have a so-called midijob.

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The insignificance limit

The German social security system is tricky: While the tax is the total income in the year, social security contributions are deducted monthly. Ergo is therefore synonymous with mini jobs about what you earn in the month - and not in the whole year.

A slightly salaried employment occurs if the de minimis limit of 400 EUR is not exceeded regularly in the month. The average weekly working time has not been limited since April 2003.

Employment exercised for vocational training is not a low-paid job, even if it earns earnings below 400 EUR. A marginally paid employment exists even if this is the first sideline activity.

Several minijobs at once

However, several slightly paid jobs are aggregated, so the earnings add up to 400 Euro. If more is earned, it is called the Midijob (up to the limit of 800 Euro, the main employment and a second, third, fourth, etc.), but this last rule is probably more theoretical.

How much can the merit be from the minijob?

In the case of a Minijob or 400 Euro Job, your gross wage may not exceed 400 Euro in the calendar month. If you also get Christmas or holiday money, they are allocated proportionally to all calendar months:

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If you work 5 months and get 100 Euro Christmas money, you can only earn 380 Euro per month.

Average salary with the same salary

It is unproblematic if you have the same salary every month. Now it just happens with minijobbers often times that the income fluctuates, because one makes eg different jobs or has a different merit.

Then the average earnings for 12 months are calculated: If the 400 is €, then do not make a minijob. The following applies: If your job as a whole is a minijob, months with higher income than 400 € remain social insurance-free.

Twice a year you can earn more

If, on the other hand, the minijob center finds that it is not a minijob, the months with lower income are also subject to social insurance.

But: For two months in a calendar year, the income may be unexpectedly more than 400 euros - for example, if you suddenly have to stand up for a colleague. Even if you earn more than 4800 Euro throughout the year, your entire job as a mini-job will remain social insurance-free.

When will the minijob go to Midijob?

If you exceed the income limit and the job loses the mini-job status, your income will start this month - and only then! - insurable. Then first apply the Midijob rules.

However, if there is at least one month break between her minijob and the midijob, both can be seen as separate occupations: Your minijob would still be a minijob and he other job eg a separate activity.

Mini Job and Family Insurance

If you are family-insured and still have a minijob, you may be covered under certain circumstances. Actually, with the family insurance the income limit is with 365 Euro, but for Minijober it is increased to 400 Euro.

However, the basic condition for this is that the spouse is a member of a statutory health insurance.

You can not stay in family insurance if:

  • the spouse is privately insured
  • You have other income in addition to the 400 Euro (eg interest income from a savings account, leasing, independent income)

Family insurance via the parents

Until the 18. Year (during a vocational training or study even longer, up to the 2Birthday) you can also be family insured through the parents. If the age limit for the insurance is exceeded with the parents and you are not married, the possibility expires.

Which income counts?

For family insurance, however, it is not the gross income that counts, but the "total income" - that is the sum of the income according to the Income Tax Act, i.e. only after deduction of the income-related expenses.

Therefore, it can be useful to do without the flat rate taxation for an 400 Euro job and instead to settle it using the payroll tax card: only then can advertising expenses be deducted. The 920 Euro annually reduces the work allowance by 76,66 Euro per month as far as the issue of family insurance is concerned. It is thus possible to offset minor excesses by other forms of income.

Voluntary insurance

If you do not stay in family insurance and you are not covered by a main occupation, unemployed, pensioner or student, you need to inquire about the possibility of voluntary insurance. However, this costs approximately 120 Euro per month (including long-term care insurance).

sick pay

However, you are not entitled to health insurance for the 400 Euro Job. Therefore, if you are unable to work for more than six weeks, you will not have an income tax exemption.

Minijob, health insurance and unemployment benefit

The Arbeitsagentur takes the health insurance for the unemployed. As an unemployed one is so long until one does not work more than 15 hours a week.

If an unemployed person now accepts a minijob for 400 Euro per month, he is not, by any means, insured and annuity insured.

Attention 15 hour limits

In this case, the Federal Employment Agency will continue to pay contributions to health insurance. However, this only happens until the person concerned works no more than 15 hours a week.

If this 15 hour limit is exceeded in the week, the mini-jobber is no longer considered unemployed - and the employment agency does not take over the health and pension insurance. It may then be possible to apply for supplementary unemployment benefit.

Account of the merit

There is also a further shortcoming: The merit from the minijob is in any case calculated on the unemployment benefit.

Insurance in the pension insurance

With Minijobs you can now do without the insurance coverage in the pension insurance. In this case, the employee is deducted from his salary contributions. Employers are responsible for flat-rate salaries for health insurance, pension insurance and tax.

With the mini-job calculator of the Minijob headquarters, you can calculate how much employees are paid out net in a mini-job or how much the expenses are for the employer.

Mini-job and pension insurance

In the case of these employment conditions, the employer is the sole contributor to the flat-rate pension and health insurance contributions.

15 percent flows into the pension insurance. That's why mini-jobbers are not among the eligible people who can riester. But everyone knows: private old-age provision is in need and the sooner the better. For this reason, the legislature also offers mini jobbers the opportunity to benefit from the state-subsidized Riester pension.

Mini-jobbers can waive their freedom of insurance: In this case, they voluntarily increase their contribution to pension insurance to the current contribution rate of 19,9 percent. Now they can conclude a Riester pension and have their contract sponsored by the state with 154 Euro annually.

Riester pension and mini job

For the money to flow, you have to put four percent of his annual income subject to social security contributions less allowances to a high level. For students with mini-jobs that means they pay the minimum monthly fee of five euros. - In addition, young people under 25 years since the beginning of 2008 receive a one-time career starter bonus in the amount of 200 Euro.

Important for students is the flexibility in the Riester: A contract adapts to the respective circumstances, so the amount of contributions can be changed at any time. Even a suspension of payments is nothing contrary. - In the long run, a Riester saver benefits from the compounding effect, of course, the longer the contract runs.

Why is it worthwhile to get upstairs?

Especially students need a lot of time before they have completed their education. Through the increase, they can start earlier to acquire full insurance periods in the statutory pension insurance. And the time factor is important, because the full pension is only available to those who either work until 67 years or pay 45 years into the pension insurance. Those who retire earlier have to accept deductions: 0,3 percent per month.

And there is something else in favor of increasing the contributions: there is a right to a disability pension. In the case of an accident, the legal limit of earning limit applies to new entrants immediately. But the situation is different when it comes to reduced earning due to illness. Only when a career starter has paid contributions for five years is he entitled to a pension payment. Thus, as with the Riester, the sooner the better.

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16 responses to “Mini-job, pension insurance, sickness benefits, family insurance: Is it worth giving up on exemption from insurance?”

  1. Giselle Pedlow says:

    Great site, I'm always happy to be here.

  2. Simone Janson says:

    Thanks for the tip.

  3. Adam says:

    Hello. I get now 1050eu net salary. How much money can I earn extra? I still need money but I do not want to pay much tax back. Thanks

    • Simone Janson says:

      Hello Adam,
      unfortunately I can not answer legal or tax questions on the basis of the legal services law.
      Just use the link in the text below mini-job calculator.
      gruß
      Simone Janson

  4. Mrs Thum says:

    Good morning Mrs. Jansen,
    I would like to have used the mini job calculator link. But notice that the latch does not work.
    I am self-employed and have applied for a mini job. Since, in my opinion, it is not profitable to drive to the company for 3 hours a month for an hourly wage of € 12, I offered this company to work there on account. Now I'm looking on the net for a 'calculator' that takes into account the proportionate employers LSt, KV, RV and also the proportionate vacation to which the mini-jobbers are entitled and what else has to be taken into account arithmetically, I am also looking for. Ultimately, I would like to determine the sum that an AG with an hourly wage of br / ne. 12 € has to raise.
    If you have tips for me and for future readers:
    MfG, C.Thum

    • Simone Janson says:

      Hello Mrs Thum,
      thanks for the hint - I have now updated the link, you can use the mini job calculator.
      S. Janson

  5. Simone Janson says:

    Hello Illias,
    the topic is so special that I wrote a new post:

    Unfortunately, I can not give more detailed advice in individual cases because I would otherwise violate the law service law.
    Thank you!

  6. Iliad says:

    hello woman janson,
    I am a student and work on 400 euro. no bafög or other services.
    I would be interested to know if it is true that sometimes you can earn more than 400 and more than 800 € ?! but you should only note that at the end of the year not over 4800 € comes.
    I'll probably earn more than 800 this month. I hope I do not have to give too much;) if the above info should not vote!
    lg

  7. Simone Janson says:

    Hello Mr. Lindner, thank you for the detailed addition, which I will refer to again in a separate post. Apparently the situation with retirees is somewhat different than with “normal” 400 euro jobbers. I did not know that. Thanks!
    Simone Janson

  8. Hans Lindner says:

    Dear Mrs Janson,
    again wg. 400.- € Jobs as pensioner. The salary of the pensioner is therefore 4800.- € Annually
    his health insurance must be reported. This increases the contribution
    to the long-term care insurance, which the pensioner has to pay ALONE for.
    A pensioner who has reached the age of 65 can earn as much as he wants. Does he have more than € 400 per month. does he fall into the so-called "Sliding zone" and will again be fully taxable and subject to insurance. For me it was like this: the grant to the Freiw. Health insurance was no longer available (was a voluntary employee in the GKV) and I paid wage tax, health pensions and long-term care insurance from the salary (€ 442 gross). Is done by the GROSS discounters in such a way that it is cheaper than the pure € 400 job.
    I got paid then ~ 380.- Of that I had to deduct 130.- €
    the subsidy to the free- Health insurance. (which was indeed omitted)
    The German retirement BUND (formerly BfA) writes: The contributions paid by the employer no longer have an impact on the insured, because he does so
    already gets pension. If contributions are to be paid by the employer, they are payable to the insured party.
    The enstpr. Salary Settlement Letters from the BfA are available to me.
    If I have postal address, I can make it available to you in copy.

    MfG Hans Lindner

  9. Hans Lindner says:

    Hello Mrs. Jansen, it falls nevertheless for the AN additional costs. + Care Vers.

    The AG pays in the miners, of which the AN has NOTHING.
    This money goes into the "solidarity system" ie for my terms to those who receive benefits from the system and do NOT make any contributions themselves.
    Approximately 7.3. Mio mini-jobbers are there. Multiply this with ~ 130 €.

    How do you call these state machinations ??

    MfG Hans Lindner

    • Simone Janson says:

      Thanks for the information. Do you have more detailed information? Then I like to make an update.

  10. Agnes Krause says:

    Dear Mrs Janson,

    I have a question to which I can unfortunately find no answer ..
    I have a main job with 30 Std./Wo. and verdine 1600, - € gross, then still an additional monijob where I earn 100, - € and from July still a small employment where I can make variable up to 300, - € per month (total to 400, - € with both Minijobs) All jobs are, of course, registered. I was interested in whether the second minijob my main employer has to make higher social contributions for me. (I have tax class III)

    Thank you for your reply and Many greetings

    Agnes Krause

    • Simone Janson says:

      Dear Mrs. Krause,
      There is a whole series of articles here that says what to look for when you take out occupational disability insurance:
      https://berufebilder.de/serie/berufsunfaehigkeitsversicherung/
      And here is free e-book for free download.

      Unfortunately, I can not and should not pronounce a recommendation. I ask for understanding.

  11. Simone Janson says:

    Dear Ms. Müller, why is there nothing left? The mini jobs were created so that what is left over ...

  12. View Profile says:

    I find it sad that you can make 365 € jobs, but you get nothing out of the end.

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