No health insurance just about the minijob
This question comes from readers again and again: "I only have a mini job, nothing else, how do I insure myself?" You cannot get health insurance only with your mini job. You still need a main job that is subject to insurance as an employee or self-employed person. Or you are insured in the family insurance!
Only one insurance job is possible
In addition to an insurance job requiring 450-Euro, a single 450 Eurojob is also possible, which in this case can still be billed by the employer on a flat-rate basis.
However, if several mini-jobs are carried out in addition to a main job, all of them are added to the main job. Employers and employees then pay all taxes that are also incurred in a “normal” employment relationship. If the total amount of the remuneration paid is not higher than 850 euros, the midijob rule applies - see below.
Social insurance for gross earnings up to 450 Euro per month
For employers, nothing changes: they pay in commercial 15 percent flat rates, in minijobs in private households even only 5 percent. Employers have the same labor obligations as their other employees compared to their marginal employees.
This applies, for example, continued pay, paid leave and continued pay on holiday. The lump-sum fees for mini-jobs are only paid to a central office - the mini-job center in Essen.
New regulations for workers
What is new is that employees are now subject to compulsory pension insurance: the contribution rate valid as of 2013 is 18,9 percent. Mini-jobbers in commercial enterprises must therefore increase the employer's share by 3,9 percent - with a monthly income of 450 Euro are the 17,55 Euro.
Mini-jobbers in private households must increase their employers' share by 13,9 percent - 450's earnings are 62,55 per month. However, this regulation does not apply to existing employment contracts concluded up to 31.12.2012. Under certain conditions, an exemption from the pension insurance obligation is possible.
Between 400 and 450 Euro
Anyone who has earned between 401 and 450 Euro is still subject to social insurance. Exemption from the pension obligation is not possible.
If existing 400 Euro Job Contracts increase the fee to 450 Euro, the new regulations of the year 2013 apply.
It is possible to practice several minijobs simultaneously, but not with the same employer. The merits of all the occupations are aggregated. They may not be over 450 Euro.
As soon as the limit is exceeded, social insurance contributions are due for the entire merit and are, for example, expelled from student health insurance. If someone has two minijobs, it may be possible to make a slight increase in the wage to 451 Euro or more to the midijob (see below).
Independence and minijob
If an independent activity is carried out as a minjob, ie with a merit up to 450 Euro, this is insurant. If you earn more than 450 Euro yourself, you must voluntarily insure your health.
If you have one or more minijobs in addition to your self-employment, you must observe the same rules as for minijobs in addition to a main occupation (see above).
If an independent and non-independent activity with each 450 Euro is exercised side by side, the same rules apply as for several minijobs, ie an activity should become the main activity.
If self-employed and non-self-employed activity are carried out side by side and you earn more than 450 Euro with both, the main activity is earned more.
Jobs with a merit from 450,01 to 850,00 Euro (for one or more jobs together) are midijobs for which lower social insurance contributions are calculated. The social contributions to be paid by the employee begin with 4% (as of 451 EUR / month) and rise linearly up to the full share of 21% at 850 EUR Arbeitsvergelt.
This rule does not apply if the secondary job is exercised with a work allowance from 451 to 850 EUR in addition to a main pension obligation of more than 850 EUR. The full social insurance contributions of employers and employees are then payable for both employments. The basis for determining the employee's contribution is not the salary, but an amount calculated according to a certain formula.
Anyone who accepts a mini job for 450 euros is employed without social security. That sounds like “don't pay any taxes”. Far from it: If you cannot take out other forms of insurance, you have to take out insurance cover yourself:
- Health insurance: The Minijob is not covered by health insurance. In many cases, however, the employee will otherwise be covered by a health insurance, for example through family insurance, a main job, an unemployed (contributions paid by the employment agency) or voluntary.
- Long-term care insurance: Long-term care insurance always follows health insurance. Who is free of charge with a health insurance family is, there is also free of charge care insurance. Anyone who is voluntarily insured with health insurance must also be cared for with the same health insurance.
- Accident insurance:
- The 450 Euro limit does not apply here. The employer must also pay contributions to the employer's liability insurance for these employees, and after an accident, you are entitled to all benefits of the statutory accident insurance.
- Pension insurance: claims which you have acquired from your previous activities remain unaffected. But the flat-rate contribution of your employer makes very little additional demands. You can increase these claims through your own contributions to a voluntary pension insurance.
- Unemployment insurance: No insurance cover. If you lose your 450 Euro job, you will not be entitled to any unemployment benefit, except possibly as a residual claim from previous employment. However, you can, of course, apply for unemployment benefit II (Hartz IV) at any time.
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