Automation will greatly change the labor market. With more than 180 million visitors a month, Indeed observed these changes from the front row. Based on our data, we analyzed 10 occupations and their growth in Germany.
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Mariano Mamertino is an Economic Research Analyst at Indeed.com.
We see on our side which jobs are offered worldwide and which skills are required. These data speak a clear language: the professional images of the future either complement the work of machines or are highly dependent on human qualities that can not be reproduced by a computer.
Data breaches at Company Like Ashley Madison, 2015 made headlines and showed how skilled hackers have become in data theft. However, these glitches have also fueled the demand for two highly skilled IT jobs: IT security experts and cyber forensics experts to find out what went wrong.
Last year alone, the number of job vacancies for IT security positions in Germany rose by 54 percent. In the previous year there was no such development. For Indeed, this is an indicator that German companies are only now realizing the importance of IT security. In the UK and Ireland, the number of vacancies between 2013 and 2015 rose by a total of 287 percent. This is where the strong IT industry plays a role in both countries, but also local events such as the data leak in the telecom provider TalkTalk.
Virtual reality and IoT developers
The professional image Software developer changes as dynamically as the technology itself. Were recently asked web developers, companies are currently looking for mobile developers. The trend is the "Internet of Things" (IoT). This keyword is the networking of everyday objects over the net; from the car to the refrigerator. In Germany, the term "industry 4.0" is often used.
The offer of positions for IoT developers in Germany rose between 2013 and 2015 by an incredible 1.318 percent. This shows the huge importance Germany attaches to the development of networked technologies. In the UK, another area is similarly dynamic. Jobs around Virtual Reality have experienced a regular boom in the past two years (+ 350 percent). By way of comparison, in Germany, calls for virtual reality experts "only" increased by 53 percent. As the market for virtual reality is currently developing rapidly, however, we expect Germany to catch up here this year.
Demand for candidates with data science skills will grow as much as the big data capacity of enterprises. Anyone who combines technical and scientific expertise with the ability to find the important information and stories in a flood of information is in demand.
It is no wonder, therefore, that corresponding vacancies are growing exponentially: Data Scientist offers in Germany increased by 2013 and 2015 by 310 percent. In Great Britain and Ireland the market developed almost identically. This is a sign that the challenges and opportunities of Big Data and data analysis have been recognized across countries.
In addition to professions related to digitization, job profiles also have good prospects for the future, which are linked to demographic change in Europe. In 30 years, 25 percent of Europeans will be 65 years or older - compared to 18 percent today. The result: healthcare professions such as nurses or physiotherapists have a solid future ahead of them. These jobs require a high degree of empathy, ingenuity, and physical abilities, and are therefore less vulnerable to being automated.
Indeed, according to a recent Oxford study titled "The Future of Work," the likelihood that computers could replace healthcare workers within the next 10 to 20 years is below 1 percent. Nonetheless: the fact data show a significant increase in skilled labor force in the German health care system. Especially for medical assistants and nurses, the gap between the continuing demand for staff and applicant interests gaped ever further.
(Digital) marketing and design
Algorithms can do much good, but not everything. Creativity is not (yet) one of their strengths. Creative professions work with complex interactions of ideas, words and images in equally complex cultural and social contexts. For a computer this is extremely difficult to reproduce. The rise of the algorithms will therefore exceed marketing, advertising and design. Digital marketing has experienced impressive growth, which is expected to continue.
Particularly in markets, where the digital marketing has not yet reached its full bloom, there is much potential. This is also reflected in the development in Germany, where job offers for digital marketing experts have risen by 259 percent in the last two years. In addition, marketing becomes increasingly important for companies. A study by Duke University of 2015 has prompted an increase in the marketing spend of 14,7 percent for this year - an indication of stability of jobs in this area.
We are still not living in a world in which drones deliver packages to the doorstep. However, she is no longer far away. Efficiency, comfort and customer wishes are driving the development of the logistics industry.
This does not mean, however, that the logistics sector is ready for complete automation - human workers will continue to work with supervisory and administration in the now extremely complex supply and supply chain processes. However, classical professional images in logistics will undergo a change.
In times of global competition for the best talents, HR specialists and experts are increasingly becoming a decisive competitive advantage for companies. A data-driven HR strategy is already deciding on the success of the company. Their importance will increase.
With the scarcely manageable amount of information available to employers and jobseekers, the application process will change dramatically. Candidate selection and recruiting will be even more data driven in the future. Tools, such as those that make an automatic pre-selection of applicants, will spread further. Whoever wants to make a career in HR in the coming years must therefore combine social competence and emotional intelligence on the one hand with expertise in software and analytics on the other.
But the future of work is not just about data and analysis. The labor market is becoming more fragmented. Candidates no longer apply for a full job, but also individual "gigs". Example: The company enables independent drivers to work with complete flexibility, with not much more than a smartphone and a car. This model was quickly adopted by other service industries.
Job seekers take the model - global interest in jobs in the gig economy has increased by 2013 percent between 2015 and 23,1. As more industries embrace this platform model and regulation has taken place, more and more workers will participate. However, fragmentation makes future forecasts difficult - soon self-driving cars could be the means of transportation of choice.
Education remains important. Again, we continue to see strong demand - particularly in developing countries and emerging markets. In the meantime, trends such as online courses have opened up new possibilities as instructors in a country can now offer classes for students all over the world.
For example, Harvard Business School is already using a "Virtual Classroom" software to open its business courses to a global audience. Mass migration to Western industries will also have a strong impact on education. Educators with linguistic and intercultural skills will be very popular in the future. In Germany, vacancies for language teachers and translators have increased by almost 14 per cent over the past twelve months. The preliminary peak of demand was reached in November.
However, some things never change. And that's good. People will always have to eat, but have less time to cook. Chefs combine creative intelligence and complex manual skills in a way that is very difficult to automate. In fact, the likelihood that this profession will be automated is, according to the already mentioned Oxford study at only 10 percent. In the UK and Ireland, the number of vacancies for cooks and kitchen aids rose last year by 116 percent. An interesting contrast to Germany, where there was hardly any change during the same period.
Two explanatory possibilities are offered here. Economic cycles have traditionally had a strong impact on gastronomy. When income increases and unemployment decreases, restaurants and elsewhere are benefiting. In Germany, both factors were less variable during the analysis period than in the UK and Ireland. In contrast, Eurostat shows a possible cultural difference in household spending statistics: the British spend almost twice as much on restaurant visits. This shows: Even in a global labor market, there are regional facets that determine whether a profession is more or less in demand.
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